History of the factory its Directors and personnel
Pilkington's Royal Lancastrian Pottery.
In 1889 the Clifton and Kersley coal company sank a pair of pit shafts with the intention of working the coal seams lying adjacent to the geological feature known as the Pendleton fault.
However the work was made increasingly difficult because of the excessive quantity of clay that was encountered. It became clear that the work would not produce coal. The owners, Alfred, Charles, Lawrence and Edward Pilkington decided to use the marl that had been encountered to make white and coloured glazed bricks. (In fact as Margaret Pilkington stated in a letter to the Manchester Guardian in 1968 the clay was not suitable for this purpose. In the end the clay was only used to make saggars to contain pottery during firing and a small volume of floor tiles.)
By a fortunate chance the secretary of the coal company knew a Mr. William Burton who was a chemist with Josiah Wedgwood & Co. Mr. Burton undertook to make tests of the marl and suggested that a more commercial venture would be to make tiles. The use of decorative tiles was becoming quite fashionable and there was a high demand for them in the growing city of Manchester. The site of the proposed factory had many natural advantages. It was adjacent to a canal. It was close by a railway station and of course there was abundant coal nearby in the local Wet Earth colliery. William Burton was in his late twenties when he became the Manager of the new company. However he was under contract to Wedgwood's until October 1892. He suggested that the company should appoint his younger brother Joseph, also a qualified chemist. Joseph's contract was dated December 1891 and Joseph became the "eyes and ears" for his brother. William did not move to Clifton until well into 1893.
William Burton had enormous drive and charisma and soon attracted many of the most gifted artists and craftsmen to the new company.
William Burton over a long career was recognised as one of the foremost authorities on pottery and matters to do with pottery. The influences on the young Burton were varied. In particular the work of Bernard Moore and the production of flambé ware should be mentioned. Other links with Oriental pottery abound. Burton recounts that the introduction of pottery to the firm was in order to show off the number of new and fine glazes that had been discovered and which the flat surface of tiles did not really do any justice. The Society's Chairman - Lawrence Burton (Joseph’s grandson) - notes that Wedgwood's archives reflect the work of William Burton in glaze experimentation, especially lustre glazes.
(The first items of pottery were items of ware manufactured by Firth's of Kirkby Lonsdale - some examples of this ware may be seen in the Peter Scott Gallery at Lancaster University.)
Burton employed many fine craftsmen. Perhaps the most famous of these was Edward Thomas Radford. Radford was a thrower of pots and had almost magical ability. It is widely recorded that he could throw a pot of large size and then with the benefit of hand and eye only fashion a lid to fit it exactly. Radford threw huge pieces of pottery. He was also capable of work of the utmost delicacy. Salford museum has examples of small vases no more than an inch and a half tall made by Radford to amuse the Pilkingtons' young children. So famous was Radford that towards the end of his career he gave demonstrations of pottery throwing in the window of Hayward's the china merchants in Manchester. In later years Radford signed the pots he threw with the initials "ETR". Some examples of these can be found amongst pieces in the museums mention at this web site.
If Radford was the craftsman par excellence then the artists and designers that Burton employed were of a similar standing.
The company chose the name LANCASTRIAN for the new ware because it was sited in the county of Lancaster. At a later date some of the more famous glazes took their name from Manchester and hence "Cunian" glazes were named. Other glazes were used, e.g. sunstone and flambé glazes, marvelous streaky and curdled glazes and fiery crystalline and aventurines. The discovery of these glazes is meticulously recorded by Abraham Lomax, the work's chemist, in his book "Royal Lancastrian Pottery".
In particular two glazes were used in quantity. An orange vermilion glaze became the trademark of Lancastrian ware. It was very fashionable (especially as an Art Deco colour). A blue - kingfisher blue - glaze was developed which also became a standard colour.
Not just content with glaze effects Pilkington’s' also produced glazes of different textures. These fruit skin glazes had surfaces like orange peel or apricot.
It is in the quality of
the artists that Pilkington’s'
really surpassed all others. Writing in the American Pottery
Veel Rose (pottery expert for Tiffany and Co.) stated:-
"The novel and beautiful glazes of Pilkington’s Lancastrian Pottery made at Clifton Junction Manchester, have paved the way for what promises to be the most wonderful lustred-pottery the world has ever seen."
The debt to its artists is recorded in many works of appreciation. In the early days much of the tile design and the excellent quality was owed to John Chambers. A tile modeler Kwiatkowski was also a major contributor to tile work. The principal early external contributors to the firm were well known artists of their time.
Walter Crane designed tiles and several notable vases. In particular "The Sea Maidens" and "Bon Accorde" are well known. Crane's most notable tile design - "Flora's Train" - may be seen at the V & A.
Lewis F.Day was responsible for numerous early tile designs and was held in considerable esteem. C.F.A.Voysey was an accomplished "all round designer" and many of his tile designs were illustrated in the Studio magazine.
However of the pottery artists who worked at the factory several had reputations that brought the firm many international awards and enormous prestige.
Richard Joyce, Gordon Forsyth, Charles Cundall, Gwladys Rodgers, W.S. Mycock, Dorothy Dacre, Jessie Jones and Annie Burton are perhaps most well-known. Their work is illustrated in the museums listed and information on each of these artists is to be found in in A.J.Cross's seminal work "Pilkington's Royal Lancastrian Pottery and Tiles" (Dennis 1982).
A complete modern history of the tile company is given in our own work ‘Pilkington’s Tiles 1891 – 2010’ (Pilkington’s Lancastrian Pottery Society 2013).
Perhaps the peak of the early period was Pilkington's exhibition at the Franco British Exhibition in 1908.
In 1913 King George V and Queen Mary visited Lord Derby where several Lancastrian vases were proudly displayed. It was then that permission was granted for the Royal warrant to be used and the pottery was renamed Royal Lancastrian pottery.
Burton insisted that all artists' decorated pieces were marked with the artists' name. All pieces, even plain glazes, were stamped with a year of potting and many pieces had a design number.
Whilst Pilkington’s pottery was unique there was a price to pay and that price was the high cost of production. The firing of lustre pieces is not a precise science even now. It was much more variable when the company began. The cost of Pilkington's most expensive pottery pieces would be beyond the pocket of many people. They relied upon sales of their ordinary wares to middle class homes and their lustre wares to more affluent patrons. An ordinary vase would be almost a week’s wage and the bigger lustres equal to a month’s wages.
After the First World War sales became slower and several of the best artists left. However in 1928 the discovery of a new glaze had the short-term effect of lifting the production. Lapis was so named after the appearance it had of lapis lazuli.
Lapis was an entirely different glaze. The colours of lapis ware are soft and the edges of patterns are blurred. Gwladys Rodgers chiefly took up this decoration.
In 1938 the firm closed its pottery production because of falling sales.
Production restarted in
1948 but by then the kilns
used to produce the lustre ware had been demolished. The new
pottery was very
much of a 50s style. Production did not last long and ceased
in 1957/8. A last
and final attempt in Blackpool was made in 1973 but by then
the resemblance to
its illustrious past had been lost altogether.